Viruses are small intracellular parasites that invade the cells of virtually all known organisms. They reproduce by utilizing the cell's machinery to replicate viral proteins and genomic material, generally damaging or killing the host cell in the process; subsequentelly, a large number of newly generated viruses go on to infect other cells. Viruses are responsible for a wide variety of human diseases, ranging from the common (influenza and colds) to the exotic (AIDS, West Nile virus and Zika). Some viruses which are not dangerous to humans can also be exploited in technological applications, in addition, viruses find use in genetic engineering applications and increasingly in the design of new nanomaterials. At the very least, all viruses contain two components: the capsid (a protein shell), and a genome, consisting of either DNA or RNA. Some viruses also include accessory proteins to aid in infection, and in some cases a lipid bilayer to further protect their contents from the environment. The viral life cycle itself is deceivingly simple: viruses enter the cell, typically (but not always) through the interaction of their capsid with a receptor on the cell surface; the virus must then somehow disassemble its capsid to release its genetic material and any necessary helper proteins. The viral genome is then replicated and the proteins it codes for are synthesized to produce the raw material for the production of new viral particles; these new viruses then assemble and bud from the cell either through the membrane or upon cell death.

Spotlight: Fighting the Flu using Computation (Dec 2012)

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Did you get your flu shot this year? Influenza is a leading cause of preventable death in the industrialized world, representing hundreds of billions of dollars in healthcare expenditures and loss of economic production. While the yearly influenza vaccination is nearly 90% effective at limiting infections in populations less than 65 years of age, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of the flu shot for the elderly population, whose immune systems may not mount an adequate antibody response to vaccination. Beyond vaccination, front-line therapies such as the neuraminidase inhibitors Tamiflu and Relenza have proven to be of limited effectiveness due to the evolution of drug-resistant influenza mutants. Therefore, a need exists for the development of new therapies to circumvent these resistance mechanisms. Computational biologists employing NAMD and VMD used molecular simulations to uncover the key role that water plays in mediating how well antiviral drugs can bind to proteins of the influenza virus. This investigation, reported recently, reveals that amino-acid mutations responsible for drug resistance act by reshaping the local electric field and also by permitting infiltration of water within the otherwise hydrophobic drug binding pocket. These mutations thus induce drug resistance in much the same way as inverting the polarity of a magnet can repel rather than attract. These findings are expected to help guide the design of novel drugs with increased antiviral efficacy. Additional details about this study can be found here.

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  • Cyclophilin A stabilizes HIV-1 capsid through a novel non-canonical binding site. Chuang Liu, Juan R. Perilla, Jiying Ning, Manman Lu, Guangjin Hou, Ruben Ramalho, Gregory Bedwell, In-Ja Byeon, Jinwoo Ahn, Jiong Shi, Angela Gronenborn, Peter Prevelige, Itay Rousso, Christopher Aiken, Tatyana Polenova, Klaus Schulten, and Peijun Zhang. Nature Communications, 7:10714:(10 pages), 2016.
  • Dynamic allostery governs cyclophylin A-HIV capsid interplay. Manman Lu, Guangjin Hou, Huilan Zhang, Christopher L. Suiter, Jinwoo Ahn, In-Ja L. Byeon, Juan R. Perilla, Christopher J. Langmead, Ivan Hung, Peter L. Gor'kov, Zhehong Gan, William Brey, Christopher Aiken, Peijun Zhang, Klaus Schulten, Angela M. Gronenborn, and Tatyana Polenova. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 112:14617-14622, 2015.
  • Atomic modeling of an immature retroviral lattice using molecular dynamics and mutagenesis. Boon Chong Goh, Juan R. Perilla, Matthew R. England, Katrina J. Heyrana, Rebecca C. Craven, and Klaus Schulten. Structure, 23:1414-1425, 2015.
  • HIV-1 capsid function is regulated by dynamics: Quantitative atomic-resolution insights by integrating magic-angle-spinning NMR, QM/MM, and MD. Huilan Zhang, Guangjin Hou, Manman Lu, Jinwoo Ahn, In-Ja L. Byeon, Christopher J. Langmead, Juan R. Perilla, Ivan Hung, Peter L. Gor'kov, Zhehong Gan, William W. Brey, David A. Case, Klaus Schulten, Angela M. Gronenborn, and Tatyana Polenova. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138:14066-14075, 2016.
  • All-atom molecular dynamics of virus capsids as drug targets. Juan R. Perilla, Jodi A. Hadden, Boon Chong Goh, Christopher G. Mayne, and Klaus Schulten. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 7:1836-1844, 2016.
  • Molecular dynamics simulations of the complete satellite tobacco mosaic virus. Peter L. Freddolino, Anton S. Arkhipov, Steven B. Larson, Alexander McPherson, and Klaus Schulten. Structure, 14:437-449, 2006.
  • Stability and dynamics of virus capsids described by coarse-grained modeling. Anton Arkhipov, Peter L. Freddolino, and Klaus Schulten. Structure, 14:1767-1777, 2006.
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    General Medical Sciences
    of the National Institutes
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