Cells explore their environment by sensing and responding to mechanical forces. Many fundamental cellular processes, such as cell migration, differentiation, and homeostasis, take advantage of this sensing mechanism. At molecular level mechanosensing is mainly driven by mechanically active proteins. These proteins are able to sense and respond to forces by, e.g., undergoing conformational changes, exposing cryptic binding sites, or even by becoming more tightly bound to one another. In humans, defective responses to forces are known to cause a plethora of pathological conditions, including cardiac failure, pulmonary injury and are also linked to cancer. Microorganisms also take advantage of mechano-active proteins and proteins complexes. Employing single-molecule force spectroscopy with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations we have investigated force propagation pathways through a mechanically active protein complexes.

Spotlight: The Fantastic, Elastic Muscle Protein (Mar 2010)


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A smart strategy usually involves a plan B. As it turns out, the muscle proteins in our bodies responsible for the physical motions like running or the beating of our hearts, also rely in their function on having a plan B strategy. When contracting and extending, muscle fibers generate tremendous forces that need to be buffered to protect muscle from damage. This role falls to the muscle protein titin, which is composed of a chain of linked domains, making it a molecular rubber band. When a small force is applied, titin employs its plan A and stretches apart without unraveling its individual domains (like what the movie on the side shows). When a stronger force is applied, plan B kicks in and further elasticity is generated by the unwinding of the protein domains one at a time. By practicing two modes of response to different levels of forces, titin provides the elasticity that muscle needs at a minimal structural cost. A recent computational-theoretical investigation has provided a molecular view on how titin's two plans work, the study featured in a journal cover. The needed simulations were performed using NAMD. Principles described in this study can also be found in other mechanical proteins, recently reviewed here. More on our titin IG6 website.

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Publications Database
  • Ultrastable cellulosome-adhesion complex tightens under load. Constantin Schoeler, Klara H. Malinowska, Rafael C. Bernardi, Lukas F. Milles, Markus A. Jobst, Ellis Durner, Wolfgang Ott, Daniel B. Fried, Edward A. Bayer, Klaus Schulten, Hermann E. Gaub, and Michael A. Nash. Nature Communications, 5:5635, 2014.
  • Mapping mechanical force propagation through biomolecular complexes. Constantin Schoeler, Rafael C. Bernardi, Klara H. Malinowska, Ellis Durner, Wolfgang Ott, Edward A. Bayer, Klaus Schulten, Michael A. Nash, and Hermann E. Gaub. Nano Letters, 15:7370-7376, 2015.
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    General Medical Sciences
    of the National Institutes
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